Consult Corporates Sample Data Findings and Analysis

Chapter 4

Table of Contents

4.0 Findings and analysis3

4.1Demographic analysis3

4.2 Coefficient correlation analysis testing4

4.3 Regression analysis4

4.4 Reliability Analysis10

4.5 Summary13

Bibliography14

Appendix15

Table of Demographic study15

Table of Relaiblity analysis18

Table of Coefficient correlaion analysis19

Table of Hyptoheiss testing21

Summary40

 

4.0 Findings and analysis

4.1Demographic analysis

 

Findings and analysis 

The demographic analysis has been done on the basis of 

 Demographic analysis of respondents brand preferences on china market
 Demographic analysis of respondents brand preferences on the UK market

The demographic analysis of respondents of China has indicated that total 100% of respondents were male in the survey process and all of them are above than 18 years old. 50% of the respondents were replied that they want to purchase foreign cars whereas 50% of respondents were not interested to purchase in foreign brand cars. The descriptive analysis shows that the highest respondents were male [mean=1, SD=0.000]. 53% of respondents of the UK market were male and the remaining 47% were female. Moreover,100% of respondents were above than 18 years and interested to purchase new foreign brand cars. The above analysis and observation also show that 100% of the respondents were interested to purchase new cars. Therefore, the above findings and table shows that the researcher obtained meaningful and effective information from the respondents as all of them were interested to purchase and new cars. The descriptive analysis finding of respondents brands preferences on china market shows that all of the respondents participate in the study is male [M=1.000, SD=0.000]. Whereas the descriptive analysis of respondents brand preferences on the UK market is indicates that male respondents in this study are higher than female [M=1.47, SD=0.502].      

4.2 Coefficient correlation analysis testing

 

The values of coefficient correlation of MNC’s CSR performance and customer brand preferences based on automobile in china and UK market is above than 0.8; that signifies that significant positive relationship exists between dependent and independent variables.  Moreover, the coefficient MNC’s CSR performance and Customer brand preference based on Automotive Market in China indicates that values are above than 0.9; that signifies variables are strongly associated with each other.          

4.3 Regression analysis

Regression analysis is a research study help to determine the relationship between dependent and impendent variables. In regression analysis testing Pvalue is used to find out whether the relationship between independent as well as a dependent variable that is used in the study is exited the larger population or not. Pvalue in regression analysis testing for each independent variable test the value of the null hypothesis that is provides that there is no relationship exist between dependent as well as independent variables (Chatterjee and Hadi 2015). If there is no relationship that it shows that dependent variance is impacted the independent variance, and there is not insufficient evidence that concluded that there is a relationship at the population level. If the value of P is below than the significant level of the sample data than it providesenough evidence to reject the null hypothesis testing for the whole population. Therefore it is said that the data is favorable for supporting the hypothesis testing. If the alternative hypothesis is accepted than it is said that there is a significant positive relationship exist between independent and dependent variables.

Significant analysis using regression analysis testing 

H1 a. CSR related to the environment (environmental CSR) positively impacts brand preference in the UK.

According to Clarkson (1995), Mohr et al. (2001), Turker(2009) and Torres et al. (2012) Organization in each sector of business is focused on the improvement of the environmental corporate social responsibilities only due to it is right things but because it helps the organization to provide the strengthsof their brand values and name. Lwin and Murphy (2011) stated that the relationship between the environmental corporate social responsibilities and brand is strongest and its impact is strongest to the consumer who is already familiar with the products and services with the organization. Regression analysis testing indicates that values of R square is 0.636 and significant values are 0.000; which signifies that dependent variables impacted by independent variables by 63.6% and remaining26.4% by other factors. The findings show that environmental CRS positively impacted by brand preferences in the UK [P=0.000; R square=0.636; Beta=.798].Overall, from the literature review section and hypothesis testing, it is found that environmental CRS and brand preferences positively associated with each other and aid the organization to improve the relationship with the customers.      

H1 b. CSR related to the environment (environmental CSR) positively impacts brand preference in China.

According to Lwin and Murphy (2011) Performance of the each of three corporate social responsibilities domains including society, environment and stakeholders were positively associated with the brand preferences in china. Rodriguez and Cruz (2007) Examined that environmental corporate social responsibilities can enhance the consumer’s brand preference Regression analysis testing is indicates that values of R square is 0.826 and significant values are 0.000; which signifies that dependent variables impacted by independent variables by 82.6% and remaining27.4% by other factors. The findings show that environmental CRS positively impacted by brand preferences in china [P=0.000; R square=0.826; Beta=.909].      

H2 a. socially relevant corporate social responsibility (social CSR) has a positive impact on brand preferences in UK.

Regression analysis testing indicates that values of R square are 0. 691and significant values is 0.000; which signifies that dependent variables impacted by independent variables by 69.10% and remaining31.9% by other factors. The findings show that socially relevant corporate social responsibility (social CSR) has a positive impact on brand preferences in the UK [P=0.000; R square=0.691; Beta=.831].      

 

H2 b. socially relevant corporate social responsibility (social CSR) has a positive impact on brand preferences in China

Regression analysis testing indicates that values of R square are 0. 874and significant values is 0.000; which signifies that dependent variables impacted by independent variables by 87.40% and remaining22.6% by other factors. The findings show that socially relevant corporate social responsibility (social CSR) has a positive impact on brand preferences in China [P=0.000; R square=0. 874; Beta=.935].      

 

H3 a. CSR related to stakeholders positively impacts brand preference in the UK.

Regression analysis testing indicates that values of R square are 0. 645and significant values is 0.000; which signifies that dependent variables impacted by independent variables by 64.5% and remaining35.5% by other factors. The findings show that CSR related to stakeholders positively impacts brand preference in the UK [P=0.000; R square=0. 645; Beta=.803].      

 

H3 b. CSR related to stakeholders positively impacts brand preference in China.

The analysis shows that dependent variables i.e. brand preferences strongly associated (87.8%) with brand preferences as compared to the other factors i.e. environment (82.6%) and social (87.8%) respectively. Regression analysis testing indicates that values of R square are 0. 878and significant values is 0.000; which signifies that dependent variables impacted by independent variables by 87.8% and remaining12.2% by other factors. The findings show that CSR related to stakeholders positively impacts brand preference in China [P=0.000; R square=0. 878; Beta=.937].  The analysis shows that dependent variables i.e. brand preferences strongly associated (87.8%) with brand preferences as compared to the other factors i.e. environment (82.6%) and social (87.8%) respectively.    

 

H4 (1) a. Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the environment and brand preference in China

 Holcombet et al. (2007) stated that corporate social responsibilities play an important role and strategies for organizations. From the literature review section, it is identified that corporate social responsibility is considered one of the main characteristics of an organization that is considered important in impacting customer preferences. A customer brand preference is mainly as relative preferences for selecting and using brands.             

Regression analysis testing indicates that values of R square are 0. 866and significant values is 0.000; which signifies that dependent variables impacted by independent variables by 86.6% and remaining13.6% by other factors. The findings show that Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the environment and brand preference in China [P=0.000; R square=0. 866; Beta=.583].      

 

H4 (1) b.Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the environment and brand preference in the UK

Regression analysis testing indicates that values of R square are 0. 773and significant values is 0.000; which signifies that dependent variables impacted by independent variables by 73.3% and remaining26.7% by other factors. The findings show Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the environment and brand preference in the UK [P=0.000; R square=0. 773; Beta=.715].      

 

H4 (2) a. Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the society and brand preference in China

According to Laroche et al. (2001) perceived brand quality is considered the significant factors impacting customer’spreferences in several industries. Hallorsson and Kovacs (2010) analyzed that brand quality in the present competitive edge is considered an integral part of organization performance and impacted brand preferences. An effective brand quality in industries is playing the misdating role between the relationship of corporate social responsibilities as well as brand preferences in china. From the findings of Regression, analysis testing indicates that values of R square are 0. 874and significant values is 0.000; which signifies that dependent variables impacted by independent variables by 87.4% and remaining22.6% by other factors. The findings show that Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the society and brand preference in China [P=0.000; R square=0. 874; Beta=.502]. So that it is said that the management of the organization in the chain needs to focus on the improvement of the perceived quality performance as it helps the organization to provide a positive relationship between the brand preferences and CRS society.           

 

H4 (2) b. Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the society and brand preference in the UK

Regression analysis testing indicates that values of R square are 0. 820and significant values is 0.000; which signifies that dependent variables impacted by independent variables by 82.20% and remaining27.80% by other factors. The findings show that Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the society and brand preference in the UK [P=0.000; R square=0. 820; Beta=.869].      

 

H4 (3) a. Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to stakeholders and brand preference in China

Regression analysis testing indicates that values of R square are 0. 878and significant values is 0.000; which signifies that dependent variables impacted by independent variables by 87.80% and remaining22.20% by other factors. The findings show that Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to stakeholders and brand preference in China [P=0.000; R square=0. 878; Beta=.540].      

 

H4 (3) b. Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to stakeholders and brand preference in the UK

Regression analysis testing indicates that values of R square are 0. 745and significant values is 0.000; which signifies that dependent variables impacted by independent variables by 74.50% and remaining25.5% by other factors. The findings show that Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to stakeholders and brand preference in the UK [P=0.000; R square=0. 745; Beta=.668]. Marin et al. (2009) point out those corporate social responsibilities are mediate by identity appeal, corporate evaluation, and brand quality. According to Chomvilailuk and Butcher (2010) stated that brand quality in UK market plays the mediating role between the relationship of CRS activities i.e. stakeholders and bran preference.    

4.4 Reliability Analysis

There is a famous method called splithalf reliability. This technique parts the information into two sections. The score for every member in the investigation is then processed based on every 50% of the scale. In that kind of reliability investigation, in the event that the scale is truly dependable, at that point the estimation of the individual’s score on one portion of the scale would be proportional to the score on the other half. In this sort of reliability investigation, the past reality ought to stay valid for every one of the members. The serious issue is that there are a few manners by which a lot of information can be partitioned into two sections, and thusly the result could be various. So as to overcome this issue, this approach presented a measure that is basic in reliability investigation. This measure is freely proportional to the part of the information in two parts in each conceivable way and further processing the connection coefficient for each split.

Reliability Analysis Data Considerations 

Data:-  data and  Information can be dichotomous, ordinal, or interim, however, the data ought to be coded numerically. 

Assumptions: observation ought to be independent and free, and errors ought to be uncorrelated between data items. Each pair of items ought to have a bivariate ordinary dispersion. Scales should be additive, with the goal that everything is straightly identified with the complete score. 

Related Techniques: On the off chance that needs to investigate the dimensionality of r scale things (to see whether more than one developer is expected to represent the example of thing scores), use factor analysis or multidimensional scaling.

Realbiltiy analysis is defined as the fact that helps to test the degree to which assessment tools procedure and consistency are measured. In order to detriment the reliability of the data used in the survey process, Cronbach’s Alpha is implemented (Fox 2015).  Cronbach’s Alpha mainly focused on the observation of multiple Likert scales survey and determines the consistency of the data. It is mainly implemented to measure the internal consistency that indicates how closely set of items associated as a group. From the calculation it is identified that the reliability of the set of the data based on Automative Market in China is above than 0.875; that shows that set of the data has high internal consistency of the data. In the data of Automative Market in the UK, it is identified that the value of the  Cronbach’s Alpha is above than .778, that indicate that reliability of internal consistency of the data is acceptable.    

4.5 Summary

From the findings and analysis, it is found that corporate social responsibilities play a positive role in context to brand preferences in both UK and China market.  The correlation coefficient analysis testing signifies that there is a significant positive relationship between dependent and independent variables. On the other hand, an observation also shows that CSR related to stakeholders positively impacts brand preference in China with R square 87.8% impacted the dependent variables in a strongly manner. Sen and Battacharya (2001) found stakeholders are strongly associated with the environmental and social CRS activities. From the literature review section, it is found that corporate social responsibilities initiative help the organization to build a positive brand image that helps the company to positively maintain the brand reputation and increase sales performance(Brown and Dacin, 1997; Sen and Bhattacharya, 2001; Ricks, 2005). On the other hand, the regression analysis observation indicates that Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the society and brand preference in China[R square= 87.4%], Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to stakeholders and brand preference in China [R square= 87.8%] , Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to stakeholders and brand preference in UK [R square= 75.5%], Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the society and brand preference in the UK[R square= 82.0%], Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the environment and brand preference in China [R square 86.6%] respectively.  By evaluating and analyzing the secondary and primary data it is clear that organizations in present suffered from some issues as; culture, environment and social, and to reduce these issues organization requires to focus on the improvement of social, environment and stakeholders corporate social responsibilities(Rawwas, 2001; Rawwas et al., 2005). Moreover, the organization also needs to focus on the improvement of the performance by offering a better quality of services and products. This present research study is focused on the effectiveness of the CRS (social, environmental, stakeholders) on consumer preferences and from the secondary and primary analysis it is interpreted that all factors were strongly associated with each other’s(Mohr and Webb, 2005; Williamson et al., 2006; Dahlsrud, 2008; Pedersen, 2010). According to the primary data collection methods, people from both the UK and china market is pay equal attention to the quality of cars purchase, therefore organization also need to focus on the improvement of it.                                 

Bibliography

Chatterjee, S., & Hadi, A. S. (2015). Regression analysis by example. John Wiley & Sons.

Gunst, R. F. (2018). Regression analysis and its application: a data-oriented approach. Routledge.

Fox, J. (2015). Applied regression analysis and generalized linear models. Sage Publications.

Schroeder, L. D., Sjoquist, D. L., & Stephan, P. E. (2016). Understanding regression analysis: An introductory guide (Vol. 57). Sage Publications.

Brook, R. J. (2018). Applied regression analysis and experimental design. Routledge.

Cronk, B. C. (2017). How to use SPSS®: A step-by-step guide to analysis and interpretation. Routledge.

Park, H. M. (2015). Univariate analysis and normality test using SAS, Stata, and SPSS.

Babbie, E., Wagner III, W. E., & Zaino, J. (2018). Adventures in social research: Data analysis using IBM SPSS statistics. Sage Publications.  

 

Appendix

Table of Demographic study

Demographic analysis of respondents brand preferences on china market 

Your gender is

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

male

100

100

100

100

Do you want to buy a foreign brand car

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

yes

50

50

50

50

 

no

50

50

50

100

 

Total

100

100

100

 

Are you over 18 years old?

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

yes

100

100

100

100

 

Descriptive Statistics

 

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Your gender is

100

1

1

1.00

.000

Are you over 18 years old?

100

1

1

1.00

.000

Do you want to buy a foreign brand car

100

1

2

1.50

.503

Valid N (listwise)

100

 

 

 

 

Demographic analysis of respondents brand preferences on UK market

 

Your gender is

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

male

53

53.0

53.0

53.0

 

female

47

47.0

47.0

100.0

 

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Are you over 18 years old?

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

yes

100

100.0

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Do you want to buy a foreign brand car

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

yes

100

100.0

100.0

100.0

 

Descriptive Statistics

 

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Your gender is

100

1

2

1.47

.502

Are you over 18 years old?

100

1

1

1.00

.000

Do you want to buy a foreign brand car

100

1

1

1.00

.000

Valid N (listwise)

100

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Relaiblity analysis

MNC’s CSR performance and Customer brand preference based on Automative Market in china

 

variable/Factors  

no of items 

Cronbach’s Alpha

environmental CSR

4

.936

social CSR

5

.913

CSR related to stakeholders

4

.931

Perceived brand quality

6

.875

brand preference

5

.935

 

MNC’s CSR performance and Customer brand preference based on Automative Market in UK

variable/Factors  

no of items 

Cronbach’s Alpha

environmental CSR

4

.778

social CSR

5

.859

CSR related to stakeholders

4

.911

Perceived brand quality

6

.941

brand preference

5

.907

 

Table of Coefficient correlaion analysis

Coefficnet corealtion analysis of MNC’s CSR performance and Customer brand preference based on AutomativeMarket in China 

 

Correlations

 

CSR to environment

CSR to Society

CSR to stakeholders

Perceived brand quality

brand preference

CSR to environment

Pearson Correlation

1

.915**

.917**

.898**

.909**

CSR to Society

Pearson Correlation

.915**

1

.942**

.921**

.935**

CSR to stakeholders

Pearson Correlation

.917**

.942**

1

.926**

.937**

Perceived brand quality

Pearson Correlation

.898**

.921**

.926**

1

.918**

brand preference

Pearson Correlation

.909**

.935**

.937**

.918**

1

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

MNC’s CSR performance and Customer brand preference based on Automative Market in UK

 

Correlations

 

CSR to environment

CSR to Society

CSR to stakeholders

Perceived brand quality

brand preference

CSR to environment

Pearson Correlation

1

.885**

.855**

.871**

.798**

CSR to Society

Pearson Correlation

.885**

1

.973**

.905**

.831**

CSR to stakeholders

Pearson Correlation

.855**

.973**

1

.852**

.803**

Perceived brand quality

Pearson Correlation

.871**

.905**

.852**

1

.766**

brand preference

Pearson Correlation

.798**

.831**

.803**

.766**

1

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

 

Table of Hyptoheiss testing

H1 a. CSR related to the environment (environmental CSR) positively impacts brand preference in UK.

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.798a

.636

.632

.860

a. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to environment

 

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

126.691

1

126.691

171.323

.000b

 

Residual

72.469

98

.739

 

 

 

Total

199.160

99

 

 

 

a. Dependent Variable: brand preference

b. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to environment

 

Coefficientsa

Model

UnstandardizedCoefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

 

B

Std. Error

Beta

 

 

1

(Constant)

.726

.354

 

2.051

.043

 

CSR to environment

.858

.066

.798

13.089

.000

a. Dependent Variable: brandpreference

 

H1 b. CSR related to the environment (environmental CSR) positively impacts brand preference in China.

 

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.909a

.826

.824

.782

a. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to environment

 

 

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

283.513

1

283.513

463.633

.000b

 

Residual

59.927

98

.612

 

 

 

Total

343.440

99

 

 

 

a. Dependent Variable: brand preference

b. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to environment

 

 

Coefficientsa

Model

UnstandardizedCoefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

 

B

Std. Error

Beta

 

 

1

(Constant)

.404

.220

 

1.835

.070

 

CSR to environment

.924

.043

.909

21.532

.000

a. Dependent Variable: brand preference

 

 

 

 

H2 a. socially relevant corporate social responsibility (social CSR) has a positive impact on brand preferences in UK.

 

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.831a

.691

.688

.793

a. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to Society

 

 

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

137.593

1

137.593

219.018

.000b

 

Residual

61.567

98

.628

 

 

 

Total

199.160

99

 

 

 

a. Dependent Variable: brand preference

b. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to Society

 

 

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

 

B

Std. Error

Beta

 

 

1

(Constant)

.559

.325

 

1.722

.088

 

CSR to Society

.886

.060

.831

14.799

.000

a. Dependent Variable: brand preference

 

 

H2 b. socially relevant corporate social responsibility (social CSR) has a positive impact on brand preferences in China

 

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.935a

.874

.873

.665

a. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to Society

 

 

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

300.131

1

300.131

679.144

.000b

 

Residual

43.309

98

.442

 

 

 

Total

343.440

99

 

 

 

a. Dependent Variable: brand preference

b. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to Society

 

 

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

 

B

Std. Error

Beta

 

 

1

(Constant)

-.140

.202

 

-.693

.490

 

CSR to Society

1.002

.038

.935

26.060

.000

a. Dependent Variable: brand preference

 

 

H3 a. CSR related to stakeholders positively impacts brand preference in UK.

 

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.803a

.645

.642

.849

a. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to stakeholders

 

 

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

128.512

1

128.512

178.266

.000b

 

Residual

70.648

98

.721

 

 

 

Total

199.160

99

 

 

 

a. Dependent Variable: brand preference

b. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to stakeholders

 

 

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

 

B

Std. Error

Beta

 

 

1

(Constant)

.809

.341

 

2.373

.020

 

CSR to stakeholders

.835

.063

.803

13.352

.000

a. Dependent Variable: brand preference

 

 

H3 b. CSR related to stakeholders positively impacts brand preference in China.

 

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.937a

.878

.877

.653

a. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to stakeholders

 

 

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

301.606

1

301.606

706.532

.000b

 

Residual

41.834

98

.427

 

 

 

Total

343.440

99

 

 

 

a. Dependent Variable: brand preference

b. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to stakeholders

 

 

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

 

B

Std. Error

Beta

 

 

1

(Constant)

.077

.191

 

.405

.687

 

CSR to stakeholders

.980

.037

.937

26.581

.000

a. Dependent Variable: brand preference

 

 

H4 (1) a. Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the environment and brand preference in China

 

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.931a

.866

.863

.664

a. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to environment, brand preference

 

 

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

276.491

2

138.245

313.170

.000b

 

Residual

42.819

97

.441

 

 

 

Total

319.310

99

 

 

 

a. Dependent Variable: Perceived brand quality

b. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to environment, brand preference

 

 

Coefficientsa

Model

UnstandardizedCoefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

 

B

Std. Error

Beta

 

 

1

(Constant)

.415

.190

 

2.180

.032

 

brandpreference

.563

.086

.583

6.555

.000

 

CSR to environment

.361

.087

.368

4.134

.000

a. Dependent Variable: Perceived brand quality

 

 

H4 (1) b.Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the environment and brand preference in UK

 

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.879a

.773

.768

.651

a. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to environment, brandpreference

 

 

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

139.847

2

69.924

164.814

.000b

 

Residual

41.153

97

.424

 

 

 

Total

181.000

99

 

 

 

a. Dependent Variable: Perceived brand quality

b. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to environment, brand preference

 

 

Coefficients

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

 

B

Std. Error

Beta

 

 

1

(Constant)

.486

.274

 

1.774

.079

 

brand preference

.186

.077

.195

2.434

.017

 

CSR to environment

.733

.082

.715

8.912

.000

a. Dependent Variable: Perceived brand quality

 

 

H4 (2) a. Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the society and brand preference in China

 

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.935a

.874

.871

.644

a. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to Society , brand preference

 

 

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

279.094

2

139.547

336.581

.000b

 

Residual

40.216

97

.415

 

 

 

Total

319.310

99

 

 

 

a. Dependent Variable: Perceived brand quality

b. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to Society , brand preference

 

 

Coefficientsa

Model

UnstandardizedCoefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

 

B

Std. Error

Beta

 

 

1

(Constant)

.198

.196

 

1.010

.315

 

brand preference

.432

.098

.448

4.420

.000

 

CSR to Society

.519

.105

.502

4.947

.000

a. Dependent Variable: Perceived brand quality

 

 

H4 (2) b. Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the society and brand preference in UK

 

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.905a

.820

.816

.580

a. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to Society , brand preference

 

 

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

148.391

2

74.196

220.708

.000b

 

Residual

32.609

97

.336

 

 

 

Total

181.000

99

 

 

 

a. Dependent Variable: Perceived brand quality

b. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to Society , brand preference

 

 

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

 

B

Std. Error

Beta

 

 

1

(Constant)

.438

.241

 

1.817

.072

 

brand preference

.042

.074

.044

.563

.575

 

CSR to Society

.883

.079

.869

11.209

.000

a. Dependent Variable: Perceived brand quality

 

 

H4 (3) a. Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to stakeholders and brand preference in China

 

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.937a

.878

.875

.634

a. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to stakeholders, brand preference

 

 

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

280.295

2

140.147

348.436

.000b

 

Residual

39.015

97

.402

 

 

 

Total

319.310

99

 

 

 

a. Dependent Variable: Perceived brand quality

b. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to stakeholders, brand preference

 

 

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

 

B

Std. Error

Beta

 

 

1

(Constant)

.302

.185

 

1.631

.106

 

brand preference

.397

.098

.412

4.047

.000

 

CSR to stakeholders

.545

.103

.540

5.311

.000

a. Dependent Variable: Perceived brand quality

 

 

H4 (3) b. Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to stakeholders and brand preference in UK

 

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.863a

.745

.740

.690

a. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to stakeholders, brand preference

 

 

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

134.834

2

67.417

141.650

.000b

 

Residual

46.166

97

.476

 

 

 

Total

181.000

99

 

 

 

a. Dependent Variable: Perceived brand quality

b. Predictors: (Constant), CSR to stakeholders, brand preference

 

 

Coefficientsa

Model

UnstandardizedCoefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

 

B

Std. Error

Beta

 

 

1

(Constant)

.662

.285

 

2.324

.022

 

brandpreference

.218

.082

.229

2.659

.009

 

CSR to stakeholders

.663

.085

.668

7.763

.000

a. Dependent Variable: Perceived brand quality

 

 

Summary

 

Hypothesis

Significant

R Square

Accept/reject

H1 a

CSR related to the environment (environmental CSR) positively impacts brand preference in UK.

0.000

.636

Accept

H1 b

CSR related to the environment (environmental CSR) positively impacts brand preference in China.

0.000

.826

Accept

H2 a.

Socially relevant corporate social responsibility (social CSR) has a positive impact on brand preferences in UK.

0.000

.691

Accept

H2 b.

socially relevant corporate social responsibility (social CSR) has a positive impact on brand preferences in China

 

0.000

.874

Accept

H3 a

CSR related to stakeholders positively impacts brand preference in UK.

0.000

.645

Accept

H3 b

CSR related to stakeholders positively impacts brand preference in China.

0.000

.878

Accept

H4 (1)a

Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the environment and brand preference in China

0.000

.866

Accept

H4 (1) b

Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the environment and brand preference in UK

0.000

.773

Accept

H4 (2) a

Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the society and brand preference in China

0.000

.874

Accept

H4 (2) b

Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to the society and brand preference in UK

0.000

.820

Accept

H4 (3) a

Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to stakeholders and brand preference in China

 

0.000

.878

Accept

H4 (3) b

Perceived brand quality plays a positive mediating role between the relationship of CSR related to stakeholders and brand preference in UK

0.000

.745

Accept

 

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